Thursday, May 23, 2024

Not All Compressions are the Identical

An analysis of the standard of CPR chest compressions carried out on football-equipped and overweight simulation manikins.

Longo JA, Lyman KJ, Hanson TA, et. al. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2023 Feb 3:1-6. doi: 10.1080/10903127.2023.2172494. Epub forward of print.

Take-Residence Message

Emergency responders provide shallower CPR chest compressions to overweight manikins sporting American soccer chest/shoulder pads than these with out gear or weight problems.


Fast administration of high-quality CPR is a essential element of the cardiac chain of survival. Each physique dimension and protecting gear influence the effectiveness of chest compressions. Nevertheless, few investigators have examined how protecting gear (e.g., shoulder pads) on overweight people impacts the efficiency of chest compressions.

Examine Purpose

The researchers performed a research to evaluate the standard of CPR chest compressions by an emergency responder throughout 4 randomized situations that different whether or not the manikin represented somebody with weight problems or wore American soccer gear.  


The researchers recruited a comfort pattern of fifty emergency responders with totally different ranges of coaching (emergency medical responder to paramedic). The emergency responders then carried out 4 trials of CPR. Every trial lasted 2 minutes, with a 3-minute break between every trial. The contributors accomplished the trials on manikins simulating 4 situations: (1) conventional manikin with no gear, (2) conventional manikin with American soccer chest/shoulder pads, (3) overweight manikin with American soccer chest/shoulder pads, and (4) overweight manikin with no gear. The researchers measured the effectiveness of the compressions utilizing a Laerdal CPRmeter 2 machine, which data compression fee, launch, and depth. Throughout trials with out gear, the emergency responders wanted to take away the protecting gear earlier than starting chest compressions. This protocol allowed the research group to measure how lengthy an emergency responder took to take away the protecting gear.


The depth of chest compressions suffered when the overweight manikin had American soccer chest/shoulder pads. Emergency responders used extra power throughout chest compressions on the overweight manikin with out pads than within the different three situations. The common fee of supply and variety of compressions had been comparable no matter weight problems and protecting gear. No matter manikin or protecting gear, the emergency responders solely met the really helpful compression fee in 40% (overweight with pads) to 51% (not-obese with pads) of compressions and the really helpful depth in 7% (overweight with pads) to 22% not-obese with pads) of compressions.


The recruited skilled emergency responders usually failed to supply efficient chest compressions to simulated sufferers, particularly in the event that they had been overweight and sporting American soccer chest/shoulder pads. Therefore, emergency responders might profit from further coaching relating to CPR on numerous physique varieties with and with out protecting sports activities gear. Additional, we want extra analysis to breed these outcomes, to have a look at different forms of gear that will influence the standard of chest compressions, and to look at the advantage of common coaching with on-field situations with emergency responders and athletic trainers.

Medical Implications

Clinicians have to be aware of the sufferers they deal with and the way gear, physique varieties, and different elements might influence the standard of CPR chest compressions. Clinicians might profit from incorporating overweight CPR manikins into their coaching.

Questions for Dialogue

Do you incorporate equipment-specific situations or manikins which can be overweight into your CPR coaching? If not, what limitations would you encounter in working towards incorporating manikins which can be overweight or equipment-specific situations?

Written by Kyle Harris
Reviewed by Jeffrey Driban

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