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“It’s By no means Going to Occur to Me” Occurs to Mess with Concussion Reporting

Masculinity, optimism bias, and perceived strain from stakeholders affect on student-athlete concussion reporting intentions and habits.

Weber Rawlins ML, Welch Bacon CE, Tomporowski P, Homosexual JL, Bierema L, Schmidt JD. J Am Coll Well being. 2022 Sep 9:1-7. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2022.2115300. Epub forward of print.

Take-Dwelling Message

Pupil-athletes with pessimistic views of concussion dangers have greater intentions to report signs or a concussion.


Clinicians depend on student-athletes to report a potential concussion to make sure correct analysis and remedy. We are able to optimize academic efforts to enhance concussion reporting with a greater understanding of the limitations to reporting a concussion. Three rising areas which will affect reporting are masculinity (qualities historically associated to males), optimism bias (pondering dangerous issues are much less prone to happen to an individual than others), and perceived strain from stakeholders (e.g., coaches, teammates).

Examine Purpose

Weber Rawlins and colleagues accomplished a survey research to find out how masculinity, optimism bias, and perceived strain from others associated to reporting intentions and behaviors.


Pupil-athletes from 3 universities within the Southeastern USA used on-line survey software program to finish 5 instruments that assessed key components:

  1. masculinity (successful, emotional management, risk-taking, violence, energy over ladies, playboy, self-reliance, primacy of sport, and heterosexual self-presentation)
  2. optimism bias
  3. perceived strain (from coaches, teammates, dad and mom/guardians, sports activities medication professionals, athletes directors, and sports activities followers)
  4. concussion and symptom reporting intentions (summarized as being a reporter or non-reporter)
  5. concussion and symptom reporting behaviors (summarized as being a reporter or non-reporter)


A complete of 313 respondents accomplished all parts of the survey, and 369 respondents accomplished at the very least 1 a part of the survey. A student-athlete had much less intention to report signs or a concussion in the event that they weren’t a pessimist (impartial or optimist). Moreover, that they had much less intention to report signs in the event that they reported extra masculinity in two domains:  “playboy” and “heterosexual self-preservation”. Concerning intention to report concussions, somebody with elevated scores for “primacy of sport” and “strain from athletic administration” tended to be much less prone to report.


Apparently, probably the most constant end result was that somebody who was impartial or felt much less prone to expertise dangerous occasions than another person was much less prone to report signs or a concussion. Based mostly on this discovering, the authors recommend that “academic efforts ought to spotlight the lifelike threat student-athletes have for sustaining a concussion in sport or creating long-term well being penalties as results of that concussion”. The authors additionally reported predictors for reporting behaviors through the prior yr. These analyses led to completely different outcomes than what we reported above. One rationalization is that reporting intentions and precise behaviors don’t match. Nevertheless, it’s arduous to check these outcomes as a result of solely 10-20% of the individuals had signs or a concussion to report (or not report) within the prior yr. Subsequently, the completely different outcomes could possibly be a fluke, or this subset of individuals is exclusive to the opposite 80-90% of the individuals and not using a concussion or signs within the prior yr. It will likely be fascinating to see if future research with a bigger group of individuals with signs or concussion within the earlier yr yield comparable outcomes.

Scientific Implications

Clinicians ought to encourage well timed reporting of concussions and supply lifelike estimates of a student-athlete’s threat for a concussion and the results of a concussion.

Questions for Dialogue

What methods have you ever employed to assist educate stakeholders in regards to the risks of not reporting concussions? Have you ever discovered these efforts to achieve success? Why or why not?

Written by: Kyle Harris
Reviewed by: Jeffrey Driban

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